Fiber optic cabling
Datacom Solutions has been installing fiber optic cabling in Vancouver & the lower mainland since 1999. We offer a variety of fiber optic cabling solutions: indoor, outdoor, loose tube, tight buffered. Do you require a high speed backbone? or point to point installations within a building complex? Would you like to run fiber to the desktop? Let our professionals guide you through your fiber optic cable installation. We pride ourselves on efficient, high quality, cost effective fiber optic cabling installations. We would be happy to perform a complimentary site survey.
Call today for your free consultation
Vancouver (604) 454-9977 toll free 1-877-313-DATA (3282)
Advantages to using Fiber optic cabling
•SPEED: Fiber optic cabling can offer gigabit transmition .
•BANDWIDTH: Fiber optic cables have a large carrying capacity.
•DISTANCE: Fiber optic cables are tipically used when the copper distance rating is exceeded.
•RESISTANCE: Fiber optic cables offer much greater resistance to electromagnetic interference.
•MAINTENANCE: Once fiber optic cables are installed, they cost much less to maintain.
In recent years it has become apparent that fiber-optics are steadily replacing copper wire as an appropriate means of communication signal transmission. They span the long distances between local phone systems as well as providing the backbone for many network systems. Other system users include cable television services, university campuses, office buildings, industrial plants, and electric utility companies.
Fiber-optics use light pulses to transmit information down fiber lines instead of using electronic pulses to transmit information down copper lines. Looking at the components in a fiber-optic chain will give a better understanding of how the system works in conjunction with wire based systems.
At one end of the system is a transmitter.
This is the place of origin for information coming on to fiber-optic
lines. The transmitter accepts coded electronic pulse information
coming from copper wire. It then processes and translates that information
into equivalently coded light pulses. A light-emitting diode (LED)
or an injection-laser diode (ILD) can be used for generating the
light pulses. Using a lens, the light pulses are funneled into the
fiber-optic medium where they transmit themselves down the line
.Think of a fiber cable in terms of very long tube that is coated with a mirror. If you shine a flashlight in one end you can see light at the far end; even if the tube has a bend in it.
Light pulses move easily down the fiber-optic line because of a principle known as total internal reflection. "This principle of total internal reflection states that when the angle of incidence exceeds a critical value, light cannot get out of the glass; instead, the light bounces back in. When this principle is applied to the construction of the fiber-optic strand, it is possible to transmit information down fiber lines in the form of light pulses.
TYPES OF FIBER OPTIC CABLES:
are three types of fiber optic cable commonly used: single
mode, multimode and
plastic optical fiber (POF). Fiber optic cable functions as a "light
guide," guiding the light introduced at one end of the cable
through to the other end. The light source can either be a light-emitting
diode (LED) or a laser.
While fiber optic cable itself has become cheaper over time - a equivalent length of copper cable cost less per foot but not when you factor in the bandwidth capacity. Fiber optic cable connectors and the equipment needed to install them are still more expensive than their copper counterparts.
Single Mode cable
Single Mode cable is a single stand of glass fiber with a diameter of 8.3 to 10 microns that has one mode of transmission. Single Mode Fiber with a relatively narrow diameter, through which only one mode will propagate typically 1310 or 1550nm. Carries higher bandwidth than multimode fiber, but requires a light source with a narrow spectral width. Synonyms mono-mode optical fiber, single-mode fiber, single-mode optical wave guide, un i-mode fiber. Single-mode fiber gives you a higher transmission rate and up to 50 times more distance than multimode, but it also costs more. Single-mode fiber has a much smaller core than multimode. The small core and single light-wave virtually eliminate any distortion that could result from overlapping light pulses, providing the least signal attenuation and the highest transmission speeds of any fiber cable type. Single-mode optical fiber is an optical fiber in which only the lowest order bound mode can propagate at the wavelength of interest typically 1300 to 1320nm.
is made of of glass fibers, with a common diameters in
the 50-to-100 micron range for the light carry component (the
most common size is 62.5).
POF is a newer plastic-based cable which promises performance similar
to glass cable on very short runs, but at a lower cost
.Multimode fiber gives you high bandwidth at high speeds over medium distances. Light waves are dispersed into numerous paths, or modes, as they travel through the cable's core typically 850 or 1300nm. Typical multimode fiber core diameters are 50, 62.5, and 100 micrometers. However, in long cable runs (greater than 3000 feet [914.4 ml), multiple paths of light can cause signal distortion at the receiving end, resulting in an unclear and incomplete data transmission.
The use of fiber-optics was generally not available until 1970 when Corning Glass Works was able to produce a fiber with a loss of 20 dB/km. It was recognized that optical fiber would be feasible for telecommunication transmission only if glass could be developed so pure that attenuation would be 20dB/km or less. That is, 1% of the light would remain after traveling 1 km. Today's optical fiber attenuation ranges from 0.5dB/km to 1000dB/km depending on the optical fiber used. Attenuation limits are based on intended application.
The applications of optical fiber communications have increased at a rapid rate, since the first commercial installation of a fiber-optic system in 1977. Telephone companies began early on, replacing their old copper wire systems with optical fiber lines. Today's telephone companies use optical fiber throughout their system as the backbone architecture and as the long-distance connection between city phone systems.
Cable television companies have also began integrating fiber-optics into their cable systems. The trunk lines that connect central offices have generally been replaced with optical fiber. Some providers have begun experimenting with fiber to the curb using a fiber/coaxial hybrid. Such a hybrid allows for the integration of fiber and coaxial at a neighborhood location. This location, called a node, would provide the optical receiver that converts the light impulses back to electronic signals. The signals could then be fed to individual homes via coaxial cable.
Local Area Networks (LAN) is a collective group of computers, or computer systems, connected to each other allowing for shared program software or data bases. Colleges, universities, office buildings, and industrial plants, just to name a few, all make use of optical fiber within their LAN systems.
Power companies are an emerging group that have begun to utilize fiber-optics in their communication systems. Most power utilities already have fiber-optic communication systems in use for monitoring their power grid systems.
STEP-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER has a large core, up to 100 microns in diameter. As a result, some of the light rays that make up the digital pulse may travel a direct route, whereas others zigzag as they bounce off the cladding. These alternative pathways cause the different groupings of light rays, referred to as modes, to arrive separately at a receiving point. The pulse, an aggregate of different modes, begins to spread out, losing its well-defined shape. The need to leave spacing between pulses to prevent overlapping limits bandwidth that is, the amount of information that can be sent. Consequently, this type of fiber is best suited for transmission over short distances, in an endoscope, for instance.
GRADED-INDEX MULTIMODE FIBER contains a core in which the refractive index diminishes gradually from the center axis out toward the cladding. The higher refractive index at the center makes the light rays moving down the axis advance more slowly than those near the cladding. Also, rather than zigzagging off the cladding, light in the core curves helically because of the graded index, reducing its travel distance. The shortened path and the higher speed allow light at the periphery to arrive at a receiver at about the same time as the slow but straight rays in the core axis. The result: a digital pulse suffers less dispersion.
SINGLE-MODE FIBER has a narrow core (eight microns or less), and the index of refraction between the core and the cladding changes less than it does for multimode fibers. Light thus travels parallel to the axis, creating little pulse dispersion. Telephone and cable television networks install millions of kilometers of this fiber every year.
Loose tube VS Tight buffered fiber optic cable
There are two styles of fiber optic cable construction: loose tube and tight buffered. Both contain some type of strengthening member, such as aramid yarn, stainless steel wire strands, or even gel-filled sleeves. But each is designed for very different environments.Loose tube cables, the older of the two cable types, are specifically designed for harsh outdoor environments. They protect the fiber core, cladding, and coating by enclosing everything within semi-rigid protective sleeves or tubes. In loose-tube cables that hold more than one optical fiber, each individually sleeved core is bundled loosely within an all-encompassing outer jacket.Many loose-tube cables also have a water-resistant gel that surrounds the fibers. This gel helps protect them from moisture, so the cables are great for harsh, high-humidity environments where water or condensation can be a problem. These gel-filled tubes can expand and contract with temperature changes. Gel-filled loose-tube cables are not the best choice when the cable needs to be submerged or when it is routed around multiple bends because excess cable strain can force fibers to emerge from the gel.
Tight-buffered cables, in contrast, are optimized for indoor applications. Because they are sturdier than loose-tube cables, they are best suited for moderate-length LAN/WAN connections, long indoor runs, and even direct burial. Tight-buffered cables are also recommended for underwater applications.
Instead of a gel layer or sleeve to protect the fiber core, tight-buffered cables use a two-layer coating. One is plastic; the other is waterproof acrylate. The acrylate coating keeps moisture away from the cable, like the gel-filled sleeves do for loose-tube cables. The acrylate layer is bound tightly to the plastic fiber layer, so that the core is never exposed (as it can be with gel-filled cables) when the cable is bent or compressed underwater.
Tight-buffered cables are easier to install because there is no messy gel to clean up and they don’t require a break-out kit for splicing or termination. You can crimp connectors directly to each fiber saving valuable time and labor.
Call today for your free consultation
Vancouver (604) 454-9977 toll free 1-877-313-DATA (3282)
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